华阴老腔

2017-07-14 17:44:48 , Source : The Government Website of Shaanxi Province

华阴老腔系明末清初,以陕西省华阴县市,久为华阴县泉店村张家户族的家族戏(只传本姓本族,不传外人)。其声腔具有刚直高亢、磅礴豪迈的气魄,听起来颇有关西大汉咏唱大江东去之慨;落音又引进渭水船工号子曲调,采用一人唱众人帮合的拖腔(民间俗称为拉波);伴奏音乐不用唢呐,独设檀板的拍板节奏,均构成了该剧种的独有之长,使其富有突出的历史和文化价值,世代流传,久演不衰。

2006年,华阴老腔已入选第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。

老腔是一种板腔体戏曲剧种,是皮影戏的一种,唱戏人在后台是皮影戏,唱戏人跑到前台吼唱就是老腔,主要流行于陕西省华阴市的双泉村。据《华县志》载:老腔皮影又名拍板调,于清乾隆元年至十年(1736-1745)就已盛行于华州(今华县)。华阴市东临潼关、西接华县、南依秦岭与洛南县接壤、北隔渭水与大荔县相望的独特土地造就了老腔的独特唱腔特点。

Laoqiang Opera

Laoqiang Opera derives from Zhang's family opera in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties at Quandian Village, Huayin County, Shaanxi Province (only inherited among principal family members). Its tune is full of upright, resounding, majestic and heroic spirit, similar to Guanxi men's chanting of Eastward Flows the Yangtze River; its music point borrows Weihe River boatmen's work song melody and adopts prolongation of tune (called wave prolongation in folk) with one vocal and several chorus members; and its accompanying music is played by hardwood clappers rather than suona horns. All above make this opera unique, with outstanding historical and cultural values, passed from generation to generation.

In 2006, Laoqiang Opera was selected into the first batch of national intangible cultural heritages.

Laoqiang is a kind of Banqiang-style opera and a member of Chinese shadow puppetry. When actors sing behind the scene, we call the opera shadow puppetry; when actors sing on the stage, we call the opera Laoqiang, mainly popular in Shuangquan Village, Huayin City, Shaanxi Province. As recorded in Huaxian County Annals: Laoqiang shadow puppetry is also known as Clapper Tune, which has been prevalent in Huazhou (now Huaxian County) as early as 1736-1745 (the first ten years of Emperor Qianlong's reign). With Tongguan to the east, Huaxian County to the west, the Qinling Mountains and Luonan County to the south, and the Weihe River and Dali County to the north, Huayin City gives Laoqiang unique singing characteristics.

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